Volume - V / CHAPTER - 2 / LESSON NO: 8
ABOUT MISSED, OMITTED PRAYERS
Q 1: What is "Adaa" and "Qadaa"?
A. To carry out the Divine command on time is called "Adaa" and to carry out it after the prescribed time is called "Qadaa" (Urdu: Qazaa). And to carry out the command again in order to make good any defect or error if committed in its performance is called "E'aadah" (repetition).
Q 2: How is that for missing,omitting prayer?
A. It is greatly sinful to miss,omit prayer without any Shar'i reason i.e. valid excuse. The one who misses,omits prayer ought to offer it as early as possible and also repent. Repentance without offering Qadaa prayer is no Repentance as he still owes to offer it. Non-abstinence from sin renders one's Repentance infructuous. A Hadees to this effect says: the one who repents but persists in committing sin is like that who dares jest with his "Rabb" (Sovereign Lord).
Q 3: Which prayers' Qadaa is essential?
A. Qadaa is "Waajib" (essential) of all those prayers which were missed,omitted i.e.not offered during the prescribed time intentionally or unintentionally, few or many. However, one is not guilty if prayer is missed,omitted by sleep or forgetfulness but on waking up he should offer it immediately if it is not odious time. Further delay is Makrooh.
Q 4: Which time should one offer Qadaa prayer?
A. There is no any particUlaar or fixed time for offering Qadaa prayer. Whenever one will offer it in his life he will acquit with. Missed,omitted prayer can not be offered at sunrise, sunset and at the time when the sun begins to decline after meridian. However, it can be offered after twenty minutes of the sunrise and before twenty minutes of the sunset. It is also sinful to delay offering Qadaa prayer without any Shar'i reason.
Q 5: What Shar'i reason is there to miss prayer?
A. Fear of enemy is the reason to delay prayer. For example, a traveller who is sure of the presence of thief or robber can miss prayer of that time provided that he is quite helpless.
Q 6: Which prayers' Qadaa is not essential?
A. Qadaa is not "Waajib" (essential) of the prayers missed by a mad man during lunacy which lasted for a span of six obligatory prayers uninterruptedly, after recovery. Similarly, a person who (God forbids) abandoned Islaam (became "Murtad" [renegade]) and then re-embraced Islaam will not offer Qadaa prayer of the span of apostasy. However, he will have to offer Qadaa of those prayers which were (if) missed before becoming Murtad.
Likewise, a sick who is unable to offer prayer even by gestures. No Qadaa is essential for the prayers missed during this condition even if it continues for six years.
Q 7: How will Qadaa of the prayer(s) missed,omitted during journey be offered?
A. Qadaa of the prayer(s) missed,omitted during journey will be curtailed i.e. to offer only two of the four Rakahs obligatory prayer even though one offers it at the place of his residence and Qadaa of the prayer missed,omitted at the place of his residence will be offered full i.e. all four Rakahs even though he offers it during journey. In short, Qadaa of the prayer missed,omitted during journey or at normal place of one's residence will be offered accordingly. Determination of day and prayer for Qadaa of obligatory prayer(s) is must i.e. of such and such day and of so and so prayer.
Q 8: Should Qadaa of missed,omitted prayers be made in serial order or not?
A. All the five time prayers must be offered in serial order i.e. first of all Fajr then Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and "Ishaa and then Witr irrespective of whether all the five were missed,omitted or some were offered and some missed,omitted. For instance, if Zuhr prayer was missed, one must offer it first and then offer Asr or Witr prayer was missed,omitted one must offer it first and then offer Fajr. It is unlawful to offer 'Asr and Fajr prayers intentionally without offering the missed,omitted prayers of Zuhr and Witr.
Q 9: Can serial order be ever suspended,dropped or not?
A. Yes, serial order is suspended,dropped in three conditions.
Firstly, brevity of time i.e. time is running out and one can not offer due prayer as well as Qadaa one(s). In such situation, he should offer one of the two which he can within the available time and for the rest of prayers, serial order is suspended. And in case time is there to offer both the due and Qadaa prayers by shortening them (but can not if offers in a well manner) then he must maintain serial order and curtail the prayer to the extent of what is permitted by Shari'ah.
Secondly, forgetfulness i.e. one forgot to offer Qadaa prayer and offered due prayer. This prayer will be in order if he recollects his error after completion but will be nullified if he remembers during the prayer.
Thirdly, missing,omission of six or more obligatory prayers i.e. if one missed,omitted six obligatory prayers (the prescribed time of thefconsecutive] sixth prayer has run out), the serial order is not must now. But if he offers all the missed,omitted prayers, he will again become "Saahib-e-Tarteeb" (the one who follows serial order).
Q10. Is it lawful for one who owes many Qadaa prayers to delay offering them or not?
A. The one who owes many Qadaa prayers must offer them as early as possible. However, he can delay offering them to earn livelihood for his children/family and for his own essential needs. Such person must do his business and also offer missed,omitted prayers during free time to complete them.
Q11: Can one who owes Qadaa prayers offer Nafl (pi. Nawaafil) or not?
A. Nafl (supererogatory prayers) of the one who owes Qadaa obligatory prayers are not accepted. Qadaa obligatory prayers are more important than Nawaafil. So the one must offer his missed,omitted prayers in lieu of supererogatory prayers thereby to acquit himself with the obligation. However, he should not forgo "Taraawih" and twelve Sunnat-e-Muakkadah prayers.
Q12: What is the easy method of offering many Qadaa prayers if one owes ?
A. There are twenty Rakahs including Witr of 'Ishaa during 24-hours (day and night). One should calcUlaate his all missed,omitted prayers in such a way that no Qadaa prayer is left out. No matter if the calculation exceeds the real number but should in no way be less. And then he should offer those gradually at the earliest sans any slackness. The one who owes many Qadaa prayers may curtail thus: recite "Subhaan Allah" thrice in place of Surah Faateha in third and fourth Rakahs, recite "Subhaana Rabbiyal 'Azeem" and "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'laa" only once in Ruku and Sujood respectively and recite "Allaa Humma Salle 'Alaa Saie-yidinaa Muhammadin wa Aalehee" in lieu of two Duroods Shareef (invocation of Allah's blessings on the Holy Prophet) after "Tashah-hud" and in Witr recite "Rabbigh Firlee" instead of "Du'aa-e-Qunoot". It is better to offer Qadaa prayers secretly, for, it is unlawful to publicise one's sins.
Q13: How much "Fidyah" is to be paid on behalf of the dead who owed many Qadaa prayers?
A. If some one died owing many Qadaa prayers and also left behind some valuables then one-third thereof be paid as "Fidyah"(payment to offset sins/ransom) for his missed,omitted prayers at the rate of half "Saa'a" i.e. about 2 l/4th kilograms of wheat,flour or "Sattoo"(parched barley meal) or one "Saa'a" i.e. about 4 1/2kg. of barley or price of any of these things be paid for each Qadaa "Fard"(obligatory) and "Witr" prayer and in case the deceased left behind no valuable then his heirs,relatives should, if they want to, spend some money from their own pockets or borrow to pay "Fidyah". Method: they should give the said thing or money to a "Miskeen"(the poor) and then he should give it to the giver as "Hibah"(gift) who should give it again to the poor as "Fidyah" and this cycle of "Fidyah" and "Hibah" should continue until Fidyah of all Qadaa prayers of the deceased is paid. It is better and commendable for the heirs,relatives of the deceased to pay "Fidyah" of his missed, omitted prayers even though he made no testate to this effect.
Q14: How is that for giving the holy Quran in lieu of the price of Qadaa prayers' Fidyah?
A. Giving the holy Quran as Fidyah for all Qadaa prayers of the deceased does not clear the total price of all Qadaa prayers' Fidyah but pays just equal to that of its own price.
It is unjustified to think that Fidyah of all missed,omitted prayers of the deceased can be paid by giving only one holy Quran.